Graduated Doctoral Students
Dr. Kevin Leverenz is our 30th Ph.D. graduate. He earned his B.S. in Economics from Murray State University after serving in the U.S. Army’s 7th Infantry Division. After joining the Austin Police Department, he earned his M.S. in Criminal Justice from Texas State University. He has since retired from the Austin Police Department. His dissertation, titled “A Tale of Four Cities: Evaluating the Impact of Assessment Centers on Police Promotion Processes by Rank, Sex, and Race,” was supervised by Drs. Christine Sellers, Brian Withrow, Wesley Jennings, and Kenneth Peak.
William L. Sandel
Dr. William L. Sandel is the 29th graduate of our Ph.D. program. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Marine Biology, with a minor in Chemistry, and a Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice from Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi in 2012. He earned his Master of Science in Criminal Justice from Texas State University in 2014. His dissertation titled “Perceptions of Police Use of Force: A Comparison Between Citizens and Police Officers” was supervised by Drs. Mark Stafford, Bob Vásquez, Pete Blair, and Geoffrey Alpert. Dr. Sandel was an inaugural recipient of the Doctoral Merit Fellowship at Texas State University and worked full-time at the Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT) Center as the Research Specialist while earning his Ph.D. His research interests include police and citizen perceptions of use-of-force, police tactics, active shooter events, conservation criminology, environmental criminology, and hostage negotiations. Dr. Sandel currently holds a tenure-track faculty position in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Missouri State University in Springfield, Missouri.
Marcus T. Carey
Dr. Marcus Carey is the 25th graduate of our Ph.D. program. He also has a Bachelor of Arts in Philosphy and a Master of Science in Criminal Justice, both from Bowling Green State University in Ohio. His dissertation, titled "Toward an Episodic Process of Corruption: An analysis of the State Integrity risk assessment tool" was supervised by committe members Drs. Marcus Felson, Jay D. Jamieson, Brian Withrow, and Adam Graycar. Dr. Carey has been a member of the Sociology faculty at Ohio University and is presently an Assistant Professional of Criminal Justice at Texas A&M-International University in Laredo, Texas.
Dr. Tyler J. Vaughan (email@example.com) is our 26th Ph.D. graduate. Tyler earned his B.S. in Criminal Justice in 2011 from the University of Northern Colorado and M.S. in Criminal Justice in 2013 as well as Ph.D. in Criminal Justice in 2017 from Texas State University. While completing his Ph.D., Tyler was the College of Applied Arts Outstanding Doctoral Student in 2015, and School of Criminal Justice Outstanding Research Assistant in 2017. He received a Doctoral Research Support Fellowship from the Graduate College at Texas State University. His dissertation examined the interaction between contextual and individual factors in serious youth offending and was chaired by Dr. Mark C. Stafford, and the committee included Drs. Bob E. Vásquez, Shane E. Jones, and Alex R. Piquero. Tyler’s work has been published in the Justice Quarterly, American Journal of Criminal Justce, Crime & Delinquency, Criminal Justice Policy Review, and Behavioral Sciences and the Law. He is currently Assistant Professor of Sociology and Corrections at Minnesota State University Mankato, and is Program Coordinator of the Bachelor of Science in Corrections.
Dr. Brian Reyes is our 25th Ph.D. graduate. He has a B.A. in Psychology with a Minor in Sociology from the University of Texas at Austin, and received his M.S. in Criminal Justice from Texas State University. Dr. Reyes is currently employed as a Captain in the San Antonio Police Department (SAPD). He is the Training Academy Commander for SAPD and also works as a part-time professor for the University of Texas at San Antonio and the University of the Incarnate Word. He teaches criminal justice classes for both universities. His dissertation, “The Impact of Conducted Energy Device Policies on Citizen Complaints Against The Police,” was supervised by Drs. Brian Withrow, Christine Sellers, Scott Bowman, Jeff Dailey, and Pete Blair. Dr. Reyes’ research interests include use of force, less-than-lethal weapons, racial profiling, police-community relations, and citizen complaints against the police.
Dr. Dittita Tititampruk (firstname.lastname@example.org) is our 24th Ph.D. graduate. Her dissertation titled: "Offender's Decision Making: An Assessment of Convicted Burglars in Thailand" was supervised by committee members Drs. Mark Stafford, Jay Jamieson, Lucia Summers, Nathee Chitsawang and Sunee Kanyajit. She currently works at the Department of Corrections, Ministry of Justice, Thailand. She is a Penologist at the Professional Level in the Foriegn Affair Division. She has also worked as a special lecturer at School of Criminal Justice, Mahidol University and School of Criminology, Chulalongkorn University.
Dr. Joseph M. McKenna (email@example.com) is our 23rd Ph.D. graduate. He has a B.S. in Criminal Justice and Psychology from Roger Williams University (Bristol, RI) and a Master’s in Criminal Justice from Texas State University. Dr. McKenna conducts research in the areas of violence, school safety and emergency management, school crime/disorder, school climate, policing, public policy, and adolescent health. Currently, Joseph is interested in the roles, responses, and training of law enforcement officers assigned to K-12 school campuses and how research can be used to inform practice in these areas. His dissertation titled: "Examining the Use of Police in Schools: How Roles and Training May Impact the School-to-Prison Pipeline." was supervised by committee members Drs. Joycelyn Pollock, Mark Stafford, Scott Bowman, Michael Supancic, and Sean Varano. Dr. McKenna is now serving as the Associate Director of Research and Evaluation for the Texas School Safety Center at Texas State University. For more information visit here.
Dr. Lynn Greenwood is our 22nd Ph.D. graduate. She had a career in juvenile justice before entering the world of academia, working in juvenile residential corrections, juvenile parole, and juvenile probation. She earned her Master’s degree in Criminal Justice at Tarleton State University and became a full-time lecturer at Texas A&M University Central Texas before pursuing her PhD at Texas State University. Her dissertation, titled “Juvenile Probation Officer Stress and Organizational Commitment” was supervised by committee members Drs. Joycelyn Pollock, Bob E. Vasquez, Mark Stafford, and Eric Lambert. Dr. Greenwood will be moving to a tenure-track position at Texas A&M University Central Texas in Killeen, Texas. For more information, visit https://www.tamuct.edu/departments/social-sciences/
Lisa Bell (Holleran)
Dr. Lisa Bell (Holleran) (firstname.lastname@example.org) is our 21st Ph.D. graduate. Her dissertation titled: "Future Dangerouness in Texas Death Penalty: A Content Analysis" was supervised by committee members Drs. Mark Stafford, Scott Bowman, Meredith Roundtree, and Ken Murray. Lisa is an adjunct professor at Texas State University
M. Hunter Martaindale
Dr. Martaindale is our 20th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Martaindale earned a B.G.S. with a concentration in Criminal Justice from Texas A&M University – Texarkana. He then earned his M.S. in Criminal Justice in 2011 and his Ph.D. in Criminal Justice in August 2016 from Texas State University. Dr. Martaindale research focuses on improving law enforcement use of force tactics, tactical decision-making, and improving skill retention for law enforcement. Dr. Martaindale has co-authored a book on police tactics. Drs. J. Pete Blair, Beth A. Sanders, Scott Wm. Bowman, and Marcus Felson served as the committee members for his dissertation, titled: Examining the efficacy of computer-based visual training to improve the speed and accuracy of weapon acquisition in a dynamic use of force scenario. Dr. Martaindale is now serving as the Director of Research for the Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT) program at Texas State University. For more information visit here
Dr. Cunningham obtained a B.A. and M.S. in Criminal Justice from Illinois State University before earning a Ph.D. in Criminal Justice from Texas State University in August 2016. She is our 19th Ph.D. graduate. Her dissertation, titled "Defense Attorneys' Perceptions of Prosecutorial Misconduct" was supervised by committee members Drs. Joycelyn Pollock, Mark Stafford, and Scott Bowman. Dr. Cunningham's research focuses on official misconduct and broader issues of social justice. She is currently employed as an Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Monmouth University.
Tiffany (Cox) Hernandez earned a B.A. in Russian Language from the University of Arizona and a Juris Doctorate from the University of Utah College of Law. Tiffany's research includes prosecutor misconduct, legislative responses to gun violence, and felon voting rights. Under the direction of Dr. Joycelyn Pollock, Tiffany's dissertation re-examined two Innocence Project studies concerning prosecutor misconduct using three qualitative methodologies: ethnographic content analysis, case studies, and interviews. Tiffany's work has been published in the American Journal of Criminal Justice, the Utah Law Review, and has been accepted for publication in the Criminal Law Bulletin. She is currently serving as Dean for Student Success at San Antonio College. For more information (visit here ).
Dr. Victoria Terranova (email@example.com) is our 17th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Terranova earned her B.S. in Criminal Justice in 2007, M.S. in Criminal Justice in 2012, and Ph.D. in Criminal Justice in 2016 at Texas State University. While completing her Ph.D., Dr. Terranova was awarded the Outstanding Doctoral Student Award and Outstanding Graduate Student Award for the 2014-15 academic year. She was also awarded the 2015 Texas State University Doctoral Research Support Fellowship and 2015 Association of Doctoral Programs in Criminology and Criminal Justice Research Award. Dr. Terranova’s research focuses on recidivism, program evaluation, and corrections. Her dissertation titled: Evaluation of Alcohol Monitoring Technology’s Impact on Recidivism was chaired by Dr. Mark Stafford and committee members included Drs. Mitch Chamlin, Donna Vandiver, Pete Blair, and Robert Voas. She is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Northern Colorado. For more information visit here
Dr. Ward Adams is our 16th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Adams earned a B.A. degree in sociology from the University of Florida and a M.S. degree in geography from Texas State University. He also did graduate work in sociology at the University of Texas, Austin. His primary interest in his doctoral work was environmental criminology, and he presented papers in the U.S., Norway, and the Netherlands. His degree was awarded posthumously, as he left this world way too soon.
Dr. H. Jaymi Elsass (firstname.lastname@example.org) is our 15th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Elsass earned her B.S. in Sociology in 2008 from the University of Texas at Austin, and M.S. in Criminal Justice in 2010 as well as Ph.D. in Criminal Justice in 2015 from Texas State University. While completing her Ph.D., Dr. Elsass received the Student Paper Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences for her coauthored work on the Boston bombing. During graduate school, she published research in a number of academic journals and edited volumes as well as a co-authored book entitled Mass shootings: Media, myths, and realities. The book received a Choice Award as an Outstanding Academic Title for 2016 from the American Library Association and received an "essential" designation, which is their highest ranking. Her dissertation, entitled "Juvenile delinquency outliers: An analysis of high-rate offenders and pure conformists," was chaired by Dr. Mark Stafford and committee members included Drs. Donna Vandiver, Daniel Mears, and Wayman Mullins. She is currently a lecturer in the School of Criminal Justice at Texas State University and serves as program coordinator for the Round Rock campus. For more information visit here.
Dr. Kristina Lopez is our 14th Ph.D. graduate. Her dissertation, titled "Generational Status and Hispanic Victimization: An Examination of Mediating Influences" was supervised by committee members Drs. Mark Stafford, Christine Sellers, Bob E. Vasquez and Holly V. Miller. Kristina is an assistant professor at University of North Florida. For more information: http://www.unf.edu/bio/N01045710/
Dr. Tammy Bracewell is our 13th Ph.D. graduate. Drs. Brian Withrow, Joycelyn Pollock, Donna Vandiver, and Angela Ausbrooks served as committee members for her dissertation entitled: Children's Advocacy Centers' Effect on the Prosecutorial Decision to Accept or Reject Cases of Child Sexual Abuse. Tammy is an Assistant Professor at Texas A&M Central. For more information: visist this page
Dr. Stephen Glassner is our 12th Ph.D. graduate. Drs. Jocelyn Pollock, Mark Stafford, Bob Vasquez, and Leana Bouffard served as committee members for his dissertation, titled: "Evaluating Traumatic Life Events: An Assessment of the Health and Delinquent Outcomes of Youth Exposed to Trauma." Steven is an assistant professor at Columbus State University.
Dr. Paul D. Reynolds (paul.reynolds@untdallas) is our 11th Ph.D. graduate. DR. Reynolds earned a B.A. in Sociology from Stetson University and a M.S. with an emphasis in Public Service Management from Cumberland University. He then earned his Ph.D. in Criminal Justice in August 2015 from Texas State University. Dr. Reynolds’ research focuses on enhancing police organizational climates and improving police officer performance. Drs. Jocelyn Pollock, Beth Sanders, Bob Vasquez, and Mathew Hickman served as committee members for his dissertation, titled: The impact of fairness, organizational trust, and perceived organizational support on police officer performance. He is former police officer and U.S. Army veteran. Dr. Reynolds is currently an Assistant Professor, tenure-track, at University of North Texas at Dallas. For more information visit here
Anne Li Kringen
Dr. Anne Li Kringen (email@example.com) is our 10th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Kringen earned her B.A. in International Affairs from Mary Washington University in Fredericksburg, VA in 2005. She earned her Masters in Criminal Justice in 2011 from Boston University and her Ph.D. in Criminal Justice in 2014 from Texas State University. Dr. Kringen’s research focuses on structural factors that limit representative bureaucracy in policing and other challenges to institutional change. Drs. Joy Pollock, Beth Saunders, Christine Sellers, Jeff Cancino, and Cynthia Lum served as committee members for her dissertation, “Understanding Barriers that Affect Recruiting and Retaining Female Police Officers: A Mixed Method Approach,” which won the Graduate College’s 2016 Outstanding Dissertation Award in Social Sciences.
Dr. Kringen is now an associate professor of criminal justice and the assistant dean for the Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Science at the University of New Haven. She recently briefed U.S. Congress on the status of women entering policing careers and served as a discussant at the National Institute of Justice’s 2018 summit on women in criminal justice. As well, she is a member of the International Association of Chief of Police’s Research Advisory Committee. Her work has been published in refereed journals including Gender, Work, and Organization, Criminal Justice Policy Review, Policing, and Feminist Criminology as well as by the National Police Foundation.
Dr. Yongsok Kim is our ninth PhD. graduate. His dissertation, titled "Student Perceptions of School Resource Officers (SROs)." was supervised by committee members Drs. Brian Withrow, Dr. Jay Jamieson, Scott Bowman, and Timothy Austin. Dr. Yongsok is an assistant professor at Bemidji State University.
Dr. Kevin Jennings (kevin.Jennings@armstrong.edu) is our tallest and 8th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Jennings earned a B.A., B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. from Texas State University. His research focuses on Cybercrime, Digital Forensics, and Law Enforcement use of Technology. Dr. Jennings is now an Assistant Professor at Armstrong State University in Savannah, Ga. where he was instrumental in the university receiving their designation from the National Security Agency as a Center of Academic Excellence. For more information visit here
Dr. Jaclyn Schildkraut (firstname.lastname@example.org)is our 7th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Schildkraut earned her B.S. in Interdisciplinary Studies in 2009 and her M.A. in Applied Sociology in 2011, both from the University of Central Florida; she completed her Ph.D. at Texas State in 2014. Her dissertation titled “Mass Murder and the Mass Media: An Examination of the Media Discourse on U.S. Rampage Shootings, 2000-2012” was chaired by Dr. Mark Stafford and included committee members Drs. Marcus Felson, Scott Bowman, and Glenn Muschert.
Dr. Schildkraut is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Oswego. She has published several books on mass shootings, including Mass Shootings: Media, Myths, and Realities (with H. Jaymi Elsass) and Columbine, 20 Years Later and Beyond: Lessons from Tragedy (with Glenn Muschert), as well as articles in Journal of School Violence, Homicide Studies, Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, American Journal of Criminal Justice, Crime Law and Social Change, and Crime Prevention and Community Safety among others. She is a member of the Regional Gun Violence Research Consortium, and serves on the advisory board for the National Center for Mass Violence Response Studies. Her research also has been featured in the Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, NBC News, CBS News, Fox News, BBC, The Atlantic, and New York Magazine. She regularly consults with local school districts, advising on and providing training in emergency response protocols. For more information, visit here
Jonathan Allen Kringen
Dr. Jonathan Allen Kringen (email@example.com) is our 6th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Kringen earned his B.A. in Spanish from the University of Texas at Austin in 2003. He then earned his M.S. in Criminal Justice in 2010 and his Ph.D. in Criminal Justice in 2014 from Texas State University. Dr. Kringen’s research focuses on improving law enforcement through the application of crime analysis and emerging technology. Drs. Kim Rossmo, J. Pete Blair, Marcus Felson, and Paul Brantingham served as committee members for his dissertation, “Validating a Bayesian Model for Linking Serial Crimes through Simulation.
Dr. Kringen is now an associate professor of criminal justice and the director of research in the Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Science at the University of New Haven. To date, he has served as principal investigator on over one million dollars in funded research. He has held a dual appointment at Rochester Institute of Technology since 2017, where he works to integrate data science with criminal justice. His published research has appeared in Policing, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, Crime Prevention and Community Safety, and Journal of Criminal Justice. He has published with non-profit organizations including the Vera Institute and the National Police Foundation.
Dr. Howard E. Williams (firstname.lastname@example.org) is our 5th Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Williams was a career police officer having served 25 years with the Austin (Texas) Police Department and 11 years as the Chief of Police in San Marcos, Texas. Dr. Williams earned his B.A.A.S.,M.S.C.J., and Ph.D. from Texas State University. During his doctoral studies, Dr. Williams was twice named the Outstanding Doctoral Student. He is also a graduate of the Leadership and Command College of the Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas at Sam Houston State University. He is the author of four books in police sciences, and his research has been published in Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Criminal Justice Policy Review, Criminal Justice Review, and the Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. His dissertation, titled "Physiological Attributes of Arrest-Related Sudden Deaths Proximate to the Application of TASER Electronic Control Devices: An Evidence Based Study of the Theory," was supervised by committee members Drs. Jocelyn Pollock, Brian Withrow, J. Pete Blair, and Michael D. White. Dr. Williams is currently a lecturer in the School of Criminal Justice at Texas State University. For more information visit here
Dr. Steve Boehm earned his Ph.D. in December 2013 and is our fourth Ph.D. graduate. His dissertation, titled "Exploring the Process of Desistance in Two High Risk Probation Populations" was supervised by committee members Drs. Jocelyn Pollock, Mark Stafford, Scott Bowman, and Nathan Pino. He currently teaches at Texas Lutheran University (www.tlu.edu) in Seguin where he serves as the interim chair of the Department of Political Science, Sociology, and Geography for the Spring 2017. His dissertation research on problem-solving courts was published in the Journal of Qualitative Criminal Justice & Criminology, and he authored a chapter in the Texas Lutheran University Freshman Reader. He was honored as the 2015-16 Professor of the Year by the campus Freshman Honor Society. He serves on the university Institutional Review Board and he is the outside evaluator for a National Science Foundation STEM grant. His former students are employed by the FBI, the Texas Department of Public Safety, Child Protective Services, and various municipal police departments, among other agencies. For more information visit here
Dr. Sarah Scott is our third Ph.D. graduate. Her dissertation, titled "An Examination of Frame of Reference and Self-Control in Alcohol and Drug Addicts" was supervised by committee members Mark Stafford, Joycelyn Pollock, Mitchell Chamlin, and StanFriedman. She is an Assistant Professor at Texas A&M Corpus Christi. For more information visit here
Dr. Erin Grant (email@example.com) is our 2nd Ph.D. graduate. Dr. Grant earned her B.S. in Criminal Justice from Illinois State University in 2003; both her M.S. (2006) and Ph.D. (2013) in Criminal Justice are from Texas State University. Her dissertation, titled "A Test of Self-Control in a Mexican-American Sample" was supervised by committee members Drs. Beth Sanders, Jeff Cancino, Bob E. Vasquez, and Alexander Vazsonyi. Dr. Grant was tenured and promoted to Associate Professor in spring 2019 at Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas. Here she teaches research methods, organizational theory, criminal justice communication, and ethics courses, while also serving as coordinator of the Masters of Criminal Justice Program. Her current research agenda includes working closely with students to do applied research; current projects include working with a local police department to gather support for civilianizing their CSI division. Her previous research focused on experiential learning in criminal justice internships, the reality of the relationship between strip clubs and crime, and law enforcement recruitment. On campus, she serves as Faculty Senate secretary, and is active in social justice issues affecting students across campus. In spring 2019, Dr. Grant attended the National Conference on Race and Ethnicity in Higher Education and participated in the creation of a Bias Response Team. Currently, she is involved with the creation of an interdisciplinary minor in African American and African Diaspora studies.
Dr. Michele Quiñones is our first Ph.D. graduate. Her dissertation, titled "Factors That Influence Perceptions of Racial Profiling During Police/Motorist Interactions" was supervised by committee members Drs. Brian Withrow, Jay Jamieson, and Scott Bowman. She is currently an Assistant Professor at Texas A&M University-Central Texas. For more information visit here